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MLA Citations

In-Text Citations

Place in-text citations in the MLA style at the end of the sentence, in parentheses, before the period. Include the name of the author(s) and the page number(s). The following example uses a quote from a article authored by Brian Stableford:

Philip K. Dick's writing about androids is a moral discussion. "Machines, such as the robot cab, may aspire to humanity if they act scrupulously, and humans may be stripped of their humanity if they do not" (Stableford 256).

If you are discussing the work of an scholar or author, you may mention their name in your sentence, and include the page number at the end. In the following example, Walters is the author of the source that is summarized:

Walters explains that by plunging his characters into a chaotic world, Philip K. Dick explores the ability of people to maintain moral and psychological integrity (223-224).

More than One Author

If a work has two authors, follow the same rules as above listing both authors' names.

Example:

The monuments displayed in the Amazon series, The Man in the High Castle, reminds viewers how architecture can support fascist political regimes by turning political life into a spectacle (Berns and Aguilar 22-23).

If a work has three or more authors, provide the first author's name and then the phrase "et al." (include a period only after the "al" even in the middle of a sentence).

Example:

Philip K. Dick challenges his reader's perception of reality and denies them any real sense of closure (Zawadzki et al. 169).

These rules apply to both the parenthetical and the narrative citation styles.

E-books

Some e-books will have page numbers, while others will not.  If an e-book does not have page numbers, list the chapter from you which you are drawing the information in place of the page number.

Example:

Drawing on Plato's "Allegory of the Cave," Ubik is partially a commentary on the rift between appearance and reality (Bukatman ch. 1).

Electronic Resources

Websites also do not have page numbers.  To create an in-text citation for a website, you only need to include the last name of the author/s.

Example:

In the writings of Philip K. Dick, androids represent our alter ego (Walker).