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MLA Citations

Modern Language Association

In the MLA style, your bibliography is called the "Works Cited" page. Each source you use in your writing must have a full bibliographic citation on your works cited page.

The works cited page is formatted as follows:

  • begin the Works Cited page on a new page,
  • Works Cited (the title of this page) is centered and not in bold,
  • the sources are listed alphabetically by the last name of the first author of each source,
  • double-space the whole page -  the title and references, and
  • each source is formatted with a hanging indentation.

Example:

Works Cited

Dick, Philip K. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Del Rey Books, 1996.

Link, Eric Carl. "The Themes of Philip K. Dick." Short Story Criticism, edited by Lawrence J. Trudeau, vol. 219,

Gale, 2016.

Stableford, Brian. "Dick, Philip K. (1928-1982)." Science Fiction Writers: Critical Studies of the Major

Authors from the Early Nineteenth Century to the Present Day, edited by Richard Bleiler, 2nd ed.,

Charles Scribner's Sons, 1999, pp. 251-260.

Creating Citations

Elements & Punctuation Explanation
Author. Who/what created work/source.
List authors in their order on the title page. List two authors. Use “et al” with more than 3 authors.
"Title of Source." Article or chapter titles - not the book title.
Put in quotation marks.
Title of Container, Book, journal, magazine, and newspaper titles. These contain individual chapters and articles.
Italicize the container title.
Other contributors, Editors, translators, directors, performers, etc.
Version, The edition or version of a work.
Example: 2nd ed.
Number, Volume and issue number.
Example: vol. 2, no. 7,
Publisher, The name of the publishing company.
Publication date, When the work was published.
Location. Page numbers, chapters, and/or the DOI (digital object identifier). Use the database URL if a DOI does not exist. Include the URL and access dates (the date you read the source) only for websites or news articles you read on the publisher's website.

Format:

Last name, First name. “Title of Source.” Title of Container, version, number, publication date, location, database, DOI.

Example:

Rose, Randall, and Stacy Wood. “Paradox and the Consumption of Authenticity through Reality Television.” Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 32, no. 2, 2005, pp. 284–296. JSTOR, https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/432238.

Format:

Last name, First name. Title of Container. Publisher Name, publication date.

Example:

Kavka, Misha. Reality TV. Edinburgh University Press, 2012.

Format:

Last name, First name and First name Last name. Title of Container. Publisher Name, publication date.

Example:

Moore, Alan and David Lloyd. V for Vendetta. New ed., Vertigo, 2008.

***Note: this title has a version - the edition, but not all titles will.

Format:

Last name, First name, et al. Title of Container. Publisher Name, publication date.

Example:

Troyan, Michael, et al. Twentieth Century Fox: A Century of Entertainment. Globe Pequot Press, 2017.

***Note: if there are 3 or more authors, list the first author as normal, and then add "et al."

Format:

Last name, First name. “Title of Source.” Title of Container, Other Contributors (editors or translators), Publisher Name, publication date.

Saikal, Amin. “Afghanistan: A Turbulent State in Transition.” Modern Afghanistan: The Impact of 40 Years War,‚Äč edited by M. Nazif Shahrani, Indiana University Press, 2018.

Format:

Last name, First name. Title of Container. E-book, Publisher Name, publication date.

Example:

Allison, Robert. The American Revolution. E-book, Oxford University Press, 2011.

***Note: The e-book is noted as the version of a book.

Encyclopedia entry with an author:

Last name, First name. “Title of Source.” Title of Container, Other Contributors (editors or translators), Publisher Name, publication date, location.

Example:

Stableford, Brian. "Dick, Philip K. (1928-1982)." Science Fiction Writers: Critical Studies of the Major Authors from the Early Nineteenth Century to the Present Day, edited by Richard Bleiler, 2nd ed., Charles Scribner's Sons, 1999, pp. 251-260.

Encyclopedia entry without an author:

“Title of Source.” Title of Container, publication date, Publisher Name, location.

Example:

"Ides of March." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, 14 March 2021, Wikimedia Foundation, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ides_of_March.

Format:

Last name, First name of person interviewed. Personal interview. date of interview.

Example:

Harris, Al. Personal interview. 10-11 October 1992.

Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. Presentation Title. Month Year, URL. PowerPoint Presentation.

Example:

Bode, Leticia. Correction of Health Misinformation on Social Media. 29 September 2020. https://nnlm.gov/misinfo. PowerPoint Presentation.

***Note: omit the URL if it does not exist.

Format:

Last name, First name. “Title of Source.” Title of Container, publication date, location, Access date.

Example:

Fair, Lesley. “Disclosures 101: New FTC Resources for Social Media Influencers.” Federal Trade Commission, 5 Nov. 2019, www.ftc.gov/news-events/blogs/business-blog/2019/11/disclosures-101-new-ftc-resources-social-media-influencers. Accessed 13 Nov. 2019.

Format:

Last name, First name. “Title of Source.” Title of Container, uploader, publication date, location.

Example:

Mischief. “Is Fantasy Football Just D&D For Jocks?” YouTube, 26 Dec. 2018, youtu.be/wo-Da8wUhoA.

***Note: if the video is uploaded by a person or company who is not the creator you need to add the uploader as another contributor.

If a source does not have an author simply omit the place of the author and begin with the source title or container title.  This happens when the publisher - a website or organization - is the author.

Format:

“Title of Source.” Title of Container, publication date, location.

Example:

“History of Gun Control.” ProCon.org, 21 Aug. 2021, https://gun-control.procon.org/history-of-gun-control/.