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HIST 2100 - History of Louisiana

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style is commonly used in the field of history and is currently in its 17th edition.

You will use either footnotes in the body of your paper and also have a bibliography at the end of your paper. See the boxes below for how to create each.

For more help formatting your paper in the Chicago style, see the Purdue OWL website.

Footnotes

Every time you use a text in your paper - whether you are paraphrasing, summarizing, or using a direct quotation - you will add a footnote. Footnotes use a superscript number at the end of your sentence, after all punctuation such as periods and quotation marks.

Example:

This is an sample sentence ending with a note.¹

The footnote will have the citation at the bottom (or "foot") of the page. Footnotes include the exact page numbers from where you are summarizing or quoting your information. You will also place some of the publication information in parentheses.

Newspaper:
Author’s First name Last name. “Article Title.” Publication (Place), Date.

(Note that even though you will find the newspaper articles online, you will cite them like a normal newspaper.)

Article:
Author’s First name Last name. “Article Title.” Publication Vol. #, Issue # (Date): pages.

Book:
Author’s First name Last name. Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number.

This video will show you how to create footnotes using Microsoft Word.

Bibliography

You will then create a bibliography of all of your research at the end of your paper. Follow these rules to create your bibliography:

  • Start on a new page
  • Title the page Bibliography - use the same size font as your paper, and do not use bold
  • Alphabetize each of your sources by the name that first appears for each source.

Citations on your bibliography are a little different from citations in your footnotes.

  • The last name of the first author is listed first. Example: Stewart, James
  • For books, the place, publisher, and date are not in parentheses
  • For journal articles, provide the pages for the entire article

Here are the format rules for writing bibliographic citations depending on the type of source you use.

Newspaper:
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. “Article Title.” Publication (Place), Date.

(Note: Even though you will find the newspaper articles online, you will cite them like a normal newspaper.)

Article:
Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Publication Vol. #, Issue # (Date): pages.

Book:
Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.